In ordinary mathematics, the concept of “amounts” (or “values”) is normally represented using ten symbols, known as the digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Any amount represented using these symbols is in a “base-10” format (10 symbols). The values represented with these symbols will be determined according to how the number is arranged. For example: 903 = In other words, the first-from-the-right position indicates the units (in the example: 3), the following number to the left indicates the tens (in the example: 7), the following indicates the hundreds (in the example: 9), the following number indicates the thousands, and so on. Summarising, a base-10 number uses powers of ten (10 Another way of representing a value is by using only 0 and 1 as symbols. Numbers in this format are in “base-2” (2 symbols), also known as “binary numbers”. Any value in base-10 can be represented in base-2 as shown in the following example: 903 = = = 1110000111 … therefore, 903 (base-10) is equivalent to 1110000111 (base-2). Using the same procedure, any fraction of a base-10 number can be transformed into a binary number using negative powers of two (2 |

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